During a recent chimney inspection at a home in Rockville, MD, we discovered that chimney liner needed to be replaced. The homeowner quickly asked, “So, what’s a flue?” We were glad that the homeowner asked that question. It shows that the homeowner cared enough to want to know everything that is happening with their chimney. Most people don’t give much thought to their chimneys, thinking of them as simply a low-tech invention which funnels smoke out of their homes. But in reality, a chimney is an evolved structure with several essential components that work together to move smoke and heat safely and efficiently out of your house, and one of the most important of these parts is the flue, or liner. Your chimney integrity and maintenance is critical to fire safety, that is why you should always have your chimney professionally inspected and clean by your local fireplace services company.
What Is A Chimney Flue, And What Does It Do?
At one time, most chimneys were constructed without a flue liner, but because of safety concerns, most local building codes now require one to be installed. Various tests conducted in the mid-20th century showed that unlined chimneys did a poor job of protecting a structure from fires and damage. Without a flue, the heat was transferred rapidly to the surrounding wooden structure, setting them aflame in as little as a few hours. The chemicals released by combustion can act directly on the brick, stone, and mortar, causing rapid deterioration and failure of the chimney, and possibly releasing deadly carbon monoxide into the home. A flue liner also allows for the correct sizing of the chimney configuration and a proper draft, which is necessary for efficient combustion and prevention of the buildup of creosote in the chimney, which can lead to fires.
Types Of Chimney Flue Liners
There are three basic types of flue liners used today:
- Clay Tile Liners – This is the most common type because it’s inexpensive and easily available and works well in a properly maintained chimney and open fireplace. Most older homes with liners will have this type. With regular cleaning and maintenance, they can last for decades. They aren’t as effective at containing chimney fires or the chemical by-products of gas fireplaces, and they are susceptible to cracks. When significant cracking has been detected by a professional Chimney inspection, it is usually recommended that a new liner be installed rather than attempting repairs.
- Metal Liners – Usually made of either aluminum or, more commonly, stainless steel. They are very safe and durable and do a good job of protecting a chimney and lessening the need for expensive repairs. Metal liners can be constructed for almost any type of chimney, and can be flexible or rigid, making for easier and less costly installation. They sometimes need to be used with an insulating material for higher temperatures.
- Cast Liners – Commonly made out of cement or a like material, these work well for their intended function and also contribute greatly to the structural integrity of the chimney, and are especially recommended for older chimneys that need support. They can be poured directly into the chimney creating a seamless and leak-proof lining. These can also handle higher temperatures than other liner types, something around to 2,100 degrees. That makes them a better protection against chimney fires and creosote buildup. The drawback is that if they are somehow damaged, which is unlikely, it requires a complete removal and replacement.
Your chimney flue is very important to the safety of your home and family, and to the useful life of your chimney. It’s a good idea to have your chimney inspected and cleaned at least once per year, especially before cold weather arrives. That way if any damage is found, you can get it repaired in order to start using your fireplace or woodstove immediately. If you are concerned if your fireplace needs to be repaired or not, here are 6 Signs that you need chimney repair.
All Pro Chimney Services operates in Washington D.C., Virginia, and Maryland. Contact us today for consultation and an estimate.
Every town has myths of their own. In many cases, those myths are born as a way to explain a particular situation. When it comes to fireplaces, people tend to have some interesting but wrong ideas about them. Maybe they’ve been told a myth by a trusted relative or well-meaning friend. Maybe they’ve heard these myths and believed them because it’s “common knowledge.” Let’s look at some of the most common myths about fireplaces and separate the fact from fiction.
You Don’t Need to Have Your Chimney Cleaned or Inspected if You Don’t Use it a Lot
Many people believe that just because you only have a fire in your fireplace a few times a year, you can skip having your chimney cleaned and inspected. That is a dangerous assumption to make. A lot happens over the course of the year. Just because you’ve only burned wood once or twice during the winter doesn’t mean you can skip cleaning and inspection. This also applies to situations where you never use your fireplace at all. The weather can take its toll on your chimney and fireplace, animals may build nests in your chimney, and your chimney may have cracks in the masonry or stovepipe due to overheating and extreme temperature changes over time. This is why chimney inspections are not only necessary but also mandatory in Howard County, MD and surrounding areas.
You Can Clean Your Chimney Easily and Do Just as Good of a Job as a Professional
If you’re a do-it-yourself (DIY) type of person, you may have read on the Internet that you can clean your chimney easily and skip the yearly chimney sweep cost. The reality is that unless you have the proper tools and experience to clean chimneys, you could still be leaving dangerous creosote in your chimney which requires a fair amount of scrubbing to get rid of and without the right equipment, you won’t get your chimney clean. You also may miss some problems with your chimney that a trained sweep will recognize. A trained professional will see small problems that need to be fixed before they become big problems by performing a chimney inspection. Finding problems early saves homeowners the headache of costly repairs. Trying to inspect and clean your own chimney is generally a bad idea.
Home Remedies Work Well to Clean Chimneys
This one is a particularly popula myth in Howard County. Some homeowners will search the internet a read about a “cool home remedy” for keeping your chimney clean. Maybe it’s burning a particular substance along with your logs to clean your chimney, or maybe it’s a new way to clean your chimney like tossing a burlap bag filled with rocks down your chimney instead of using the proper tools. These home remedies may sound attractive, but they don’t get your chimney clean and put you in danger. They also do nothing towards ensuring your fireplace and chimney are safe to operate.
Pine and Soft Woods Cause Creosote Buildup
You’ve probably heard the myth that creosote is caused by burning soft woods such as pine. While pine has a fair amount of resin, creosote is created regardless of what type of wood you use. There is no such thing as wood that does not cause creosote over time.
I had a Metal Liner Installed and Therefore Don’t Need Chimney Cleaning
People have metal liners installed to protect masonry chimneys and fireplaces from the heat and the weather. Although metal liners do help your chimney remain in good condition, they still need cleaning. Creosote will build up on metal liners just like it will on any other material.
Chimneys and Fireplaces Aren’t Safe
Chimneys and fireplaces are very safe as long as they are maintained and inspected annually. The danger comes when they aren’t serviced properly.
Burning Wood is Bad for Air Quality
With clean burn technology, fireplaces are cleaner than ever. The air both in the home and out the chimney is cleaner than ever due to new technology in fireplaces and woodstoves. Regardless of wether, you are using central heat or a wood fireplace, toxins are being emitted in the air. Fireplaces provide the benefit of using less energy to heat smaller spaces. Central heat uses significant amounts of fuel to heat your entire home. Fireplaces and stoves focus on heating specific rooms. They don’t waste energy heating unoccupied space. As a result, fireplaces have a much lower impact on the environment than central heating systems.
When it comes to your household safety and also if you try to keep your budget tight, trusting common myths about fireplaces can become more of a problem than a solution.
As a homeowner, you do everything you can to protect your home from needing costly repairs, including regular maintenance. However, if your home has a chimney and you’re not scheduling professional chimney inspections at least once a year, you could be setting yourself up for expensive repairs down the road. Fortunately, homeowners can get chimney repairs in Washington DC fairly easily. It’s not too late to begin scheduling chimney inspections and cleanings. In between professional inspections, it’s always a good idea to keep an eye out for some common signs of chimney problems. The earlier a chimney problem is discovered, the easier and more affordable the repair will be.
Perhaps the most serious and obvious sign that your chimney needs some work is that of a chimney fire, which can be a scary situation for any homeowner to encounter. Specifically, chimney fires occur when creosote along the interior of the chimney is ignited by a flame. This highly flammable material builds up over time and can be easily removed with a professional chimney cleaning. Unfortunately, many homeowners fail to have this basic maintenance done each year, drastically increasing the chances of a chimney fire. When a chimney fire ignites, you may notice a very loud cracking or popping sound coming from the chimney, as well as thick smoke. It is important to evacuate your home immediately and call 9-1-1 to have the fire put out safely.
Even if you’re not experiencing an actual chimney fire, you may still notice large amounts of smoke when you use your fireplace. Excessive smoke coming from your chimney could be a sign of a liner that’s in need of repair or replacement. Check to make sure that your chimney vent is open; if it is and you’re still experiencing a lot of smoke, then you will need to call a chimney repair company as soon as possible. In the meantime, stop using your fireplace, as smoke can be damaging to your lungs and other aspects of your health.
Ceiling and/or Wall Stains
If you notice any staining or discoloration on the walls or ceiling around your fireplace/chimney, this will also need to be investigated by a chimney repair specialist like us. There’s a good chance that the discoloration you’re seeing is due to moisture getting into your chimney and gradually seeping into your home. Over time, this can be very damaging, especially if the water damage reaches the framing of your home and begins to rot it out. Moisture getting into your home through the chimney can also lead to mold and mildew problems that can hide behind walls, so be sure to have your home checked for these issues. It’s always better to be safe than sorry.
Flaking Chimney Liner
Another relatively common chimney problem that you’ll want to address is that of shards or flakes of your chimney liner falling down into your fireplace. This is known as “shaling” and occurs when the liner of your chimney deteriorates over time. In some cases, this is simply as a result of wear and tear, meaning that your liner will need to be replaced or repaired by a professional. In other cases, an underlying problem with your chimney could be to blame. Either way, your chimney’s liner plays an important role in protecting your home and your health, so this is not a problem that you’ll want to ignore.
Chimney Crown Cracks
The “crown” that surrounds the exterior of your home’s chimney is made of cement and is designed to help keep out moisture and debris. Over time, exposure to the elements (especially precipitation and fluctuating temperatures) can cause small cracks to form along the chimney crown. Eventually, these cracks will allow water and other debris to enter your home, which you definitely don’t want. Unfortunately, the chimney crown can be difficult (and sometimes impossible) to see from ground level, which is why scheduling annual inspections on your chimney is so important. Small cracks can be easily patched and repaired by a specialist before the problem worsens. You will find it helpful to read our recent article about a chimney crown repair project.
Missing or Damaged Chimney Cap
All chimneys should have a metal or aluminum cover that is designed to prevent rain, debris, pests, and other unwanted items from entering your home through the chimney itself. These caps are designed with ventilation holes or flaps to allow smoke to exit the home effectively while keeping unwanted items out. Over time, however, these covers can become damaged by the elements and will need to be replaced. Rust and corrosion are common problems in chimney covers, especially in areas with high rainfall. Fortunately, these are easy to replace by an experienced chimney professional.
Pests Getting Into Your Home
While a pest infestation in your home isn’t always necessarily caused by a chimney issue, it’s a possibility you’ll want to consider if you’re experiencing insects or rodents getting into your home. Sometimes, this can occur when a damaged or missing chimney cover allows access through your chimney. This could especially be the case if you’re noticing that the pests getting into your home tend to be found mostly in the room where your fireplace is located. Of course, pets can also be getting in through your garage, attic, or other areas of the home, so it may also be a good idea to call a pest control specialist if you’re having trouble figuring out where the pests in your home are coming from.
Visible Settling of Chimney
From the outside of your home, take a look at your chimney. Does it appear straight and sturdy? If not, then it may be time to call a repair specialist. Over time, the brick and mortar joints that make up the exterior of your home’s chimney can become damaged by the elements, especially when moisture is present. This can cause cracking and crumbling of the chimney itself, which can become dangerous if it becomes too progressed and compromises the structural integrity of the chimney. This is another scenario where it’s wise to have a chimney inspection every year, as an inspector will be able to notice cracks and other damage to your chimney that you may not be able to see yourself.
White Stains on Chimney Exterior
You may not think much of white staining on the exterior of your chimney, but this is actually something that indicates the need for repair. This staining often has a chalk-like appearance and is known as “efflorescence.” It usually occurs in chimneys where there is excessive moisture beginning to affect the brick and mortar joints themselves and is not uncommon in chimneys that have begun to lean or crumble. If you see any white staining on your chimney, be sure to call a professional as soon as possible.
A Rusted Damper
Your chimney relies on a firebox or damper to protect itself (and your home) from moisture. Therefore, if you notice that your damper has become difficult to operate or if you can see visible rust beginning to form on it, this needs to be addressed by a chimney repair specialist right away. Specifically, rust and/or corrosion of the damper is a sign of a moisture problem that will not go away on its own and can lead to serious water damage inside your home if not repaired quickly.
Framing Rot in Your Home
Finally, always keep an eye on the ceilings and walls around your chimney and fireplace. If you begin to notice any bowing inwards or outwards of the drywall, this could be a sign of water getting into your home and rotting out the wooden framing on the affected wall. As the rot takes over the wood framing, it will begin to buckle and the wall or ceiling will begin to lose some of its structural integrity. A chimney repair specialist will be able to pinpoint not only where the water is getting in from the chimney, but how to repair it as well. However, you will most likely need to have a general contractor come out and rebuild the damaged wall framing as well as install new drywall to complete the repair.
As you can see, there are a number of possible “red flags” to watch out for when it comes to your home’s chimney. The good news is that many of these signs are early warnings of underlying issues, meaning they can be addressed and repaired relatively easily. Still, when you notice any potential signs of a chimney problem, it’s important to make calling a repair specialist a top priority. Otherwise, you could be setting yourself up for more costly repairs down the road in addition to potential damage to your home from moisture seepage, smoke build-up, and other issues.
While interviewing chimney repair companies, many homeowners found themselves lost in a sea of technical chimney terms. The chimney repair technicians use words like flue liners, corbelling and creosote as if homeowners use those words every day. That fact is that no one but chimney repair techs uses those words. Homeowners in the Washington DC Area tend to be smart people. However, even the highest levels of education do not teach about chimneys. When providing services like ours, we do our best to share information using terms that are easy for homeowners to understand. We have created this article to provide homeowners with all of the terms that they will likely need to make sense of the what the chimney repair tech is telling them. Just take the time to read and digest each of them, and you will find yourself talking like a pro…or at least understand what they are saying.
Chimney Repair Terms
The chimney is the set of passageways to the exit points for flue gases. The chimney links the points of combustion to the exit point. So, flue gases from combustion get to the atmosphere through the chimney.
This is where ashes are stored. It is usually located at the base of the chimney. It is simply a pit where ashes are stored temporarily before being disposed of.
This is an object that is fixed in any appliance to change airflow direction. The baffle also changes the direction of flue gases and also slows down air-fuel mixtures.
Chase is the area that surrounds metal flue pipes. It is used to stimulate a chimney. There are several variants of chase. Some variants are made of steel while some are made of wood. The external covering of chase made of either stucco or lathe.
Chimneys are installed vertically or almost vertically so that the exit point will be facing the sky. So, it is possible for rain, dust particles or snow to enter the chimney to through its opening. It is even possible for animals to get into a home through the chimney when not in use. This is why it is important for chimneys to have a protective cover to prevent the entry of animals, rain, snow and dust particles. The protective covering is the chimney cap. You may want to read this article to learn more about replacing chimney caps.
Chimney Cleaning and Chimney Sweep
This term is easy to understand. It is exactly what you are thinking. Chimney cleaning is the process of cleaning the chimney. It is as simple as that. Soot, debris, and creosote usually gather in the chimney, and they can block the airflow when they become too much. In fact, the moment they start gathering there, the flow of air will no longer be seamless. So, the chimney has to be cleaned regularly for efficient performance.
Besides, it should be cleaned for safety reasons too. When soot and creosote encounter real heat, they can ignite resulting in house fires. The worker whose responsibility is to clean the chimney regularly is the Chimney Sweep. Learn more about our chimney sweep services here.
This is any of the pipes that connect the chimney to any fuel-burning device or appliance. They are usually more than one.
The flue system allows smoke and gas to travel from your fireplace up your chimney and away from your home. The flue liner is the material that is used within the system. Flue liners are commonly comprised of Terracotta made from clay.
Corbelling is what happens when bricks are stacked on top of each other and are projecting outwards. This is often seen in the smoke chamber resulting in increased creosote build up that can result in chimney fires.
These are highly flammable dark, tar-like deposits that form when products of combustion (smoke, gas, etc) fail to escape from the flue. Instead of exiting the flue, they cool and form creosote. Creosote build up within the smoke chamber or flue is a common cause of house fires.
This is also known as a saddle. This is a long ridge that links the back of the chimney to the slope of the roof. The cricket is required when the chimney is 30″ or wider. Its purpose is to ward water off the main connection between the chimney and the roof.
A concrete surface that sits on the top surface of the chimney that sheds water away from the flue liner. There are several types f chimney crowns.
Below are links to our 3 part series about chimney crowns
This abbreviation stands for Chimney Safety Institute of America. The organization is a non-profit making and tax-exempt organization established to regulate chimney and vent related activities in the United States. It is dedicated to venting and chimney system safety.
This is a valve that comes mostly in the form of a retractable plate. It is simply meant for controlling the flow of smoke or air or both. Most times it is located at the top of the chimney. It opens the top of the flue when the chimney is in use and it closes it when idle. This prevents cold air from coming in and it also prevents warm air that is keeping the house warm from flowing out through the flue.it is the cable attached to the side of the flue that opens and closes the flue.
“Direct vent” refers to a sealed-combustion system in which air for combustion is piped from the outdoors, and the event products are vented to the outdoors. (Got this from an online definition)
The draft is the pressure difference created by a rising gas. The pressure difference draws combustion air into the appliance and discharges exhaust gases to the atmosphere via the chimney
Are metal strips at the base of the chimney as it penetrates the roof. There are two parts.
1- Base or step flashing, butts up against the chimney and is tucked underneath the shingles.
2- Counter flashing- over laps the base flashing and is tucked into the mortar bed joints of the chimney.
This is the link between the chimney and the exit point for gases. The gases from combustion pass from the chimney via the flue to the outside atmosphere. A multi-flue chimney is a single chimney that contains more than one flue.
This is the inner wall of the flue. It is designed to hold products of combustion. It is done in adherence to the safety rules guiding the installation of chimneys.
This is a chimney made of cement, concrete, stones, bricks or a combination of some of them.
This is a coat of mortar applied to a surface to smooth it out. Parging is often done in the smoke chamber to correct the corbelling bricks. Some technicians use spray on substances to apply a thin coat to parge the smoke chamber. This spray on technique does not last long. The better chimney repair companies parge the chamber by applying thick coats by hand.
Relining a chimney is the process of repairing/replacing damaged or faulty flue liners. It is the replacement of the flue liner.
Stainless Steel Liner
It is the stainless steel pipe used to replace a damaged liner in a chimney.
This can be described as carbon particle residue that is formed from oxygen-poor combustion. It resides inside the chimney until it is swept out. This is a regular occurrence. This is why chimneys should be cleaned regularly.
This is the tendency of warmer air to rise within a chimney leaving cooler air at the base known as the stack effect. This is because air is lighter when warm or hot and heavier when cold.
Thermal expansion is the expansion of the metal surfaces of the chimney caused an by an increase in temperature. This does not only happen in the chimney. It also happens everywhere else. Heat makes metals expand.
This could be fixed/permanent or removable. It is the ring situated in the hole where the chimney is connected to the wall. The chimney connector passes through the thimble.
valuable is passage that links the flue collar to the draft hood.
This is not such a technical term. It is video camera and monitor that is installed to inspect the innermost part of the flues that are difficult to access.
This is the piece of metal that is placed in the masonry wall to ward off water from the wall and from the roof surface. Counter Flashing is important, as the continuous entry of water can cause issues. There are three basic types of counter flashing – surface mounted counter flashing, reglet counter flashing and through-wall counter flashing (SEE chimney flashing)
Tips for maintaining your chimney
Here are a few important tips for the maintenance of a chimney
It is advisable to use seasoned woods always. This is because using seasoned woods usually slows down the buildup of creosote. Properly seasoned wood should have a moisture content around 20%. The best way to ensure your fire wood is seasoned is by using a moisture meter.
Ensure compact stacking for your fire. It burns longer and more efficiently than loose stacking. You do not need starters like kerosene and gas to start a fire. Using any of them can lead to severe burns. Don’t overlook the importance of a chimney cap. Apart from protecting your chimney from debris, birds and some other small animals can enter through it when they are avoiding predators.
Painting a fireplace has the potential to improve the esthetics of a room dramatically. During the hot, humid summers, homeowners in the Washington DC Metro Area tend not to use their fireplaces. The lack of use makes the summer the ideal time to paint their fireplaces. Painting has the affect of giving your fireplace a facelift. Many of our Washington DC fireplace repair customers paint their fireplace surround after getting their fireplace fixed. You can find additional ways to beautify your fireplace and hearth here.
note: These instructions are for painting the exterior fireplace surround. You must follow a different process for painting inside the fireplace firebox.
Get the right paint supplies for your fireplace surround
There are some supplies that you will need to paint your fireplace. This includes some safety equipment such as gloves and safety goggles. You should also get such things as:
Step 1: Check out the Surrounding Materials
You want to be sure you paint the right materials around your fireplace. Materials such as limestone, river rock, and sandstone can be painted, but it’s going to be harder to change the color once you go through with it.
It’s best if you have a brick surround.
Step 2: Prepare the Surface
The paint isn’t going to adhere to the surface very well if it’s dirty. This means you need to have some TSP (trisodium phosphate) that doesn’t create suds as well as a wire scrub brush to do some cleaning. Be sure you wear your safety goggles and gloves while you’re doing all of the cleaning.
Clean all of the brick with the wire brush and TSP and then wash with a heavy-duty cleaner. From there, let it all dry before you tape off the areas you want to keep unpainted.
Step 3: Prime Your Brick
It’s important to prime your brick so you don’t experience soot stains on the paint later on. An oil-based primer that is stain blocking should be applied to the entire surface. Follow the instructions on the can to ensure that you are adhering to manufacturer specifications.
You should also have a drop cloth down so that primer doesn’t damage your floors as you work.
Step 4: Start Painting
Allow plenty of time for the primer to dry before you start to paint. You can choose any kind of indoor latex paint – gloss, semigloss, or flat. This is a personal preference, though many people opt for a semigloss or flat. Just be sure that the paint is capable of withstanding temperatures of at least 200°F. If you decide to paint your mantle, you could always choose to go with a glossier version up there.
The roller you choose should be designed for textured surfaces. It will allow you to get into all of the nooks and crannies of the brick. You are only painting the outside of the fireplace. If you want to paint the interior of the firebox, you will need a special heat-resistant paint.
With the right supplies and some patience, you can have a great looking fireplace. Follow the instructions on all of the paints and primers you buy, too, so that there are no safety issues. Many homeowners touch up the paint on the fireplace every year after their annual chimney sweep.